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Baby elephant

During our time in the Sabi Sands game reserves, we were fortunate to spend time with a large(ish) heard of elephants containing around 30 individuals, including several young calves. In this post I’m going to concentrate on the youngest member of the herd.

Baby elephants are very cute

Baby elephants are very cute

When a herd moves it does so as a group, keeping the young in the middle. Even when they are browsing, a mother will normally keep her body between her calf and any perceived threat. A threat that seemed to include our vehicle. Obtaining an unobstructed view of the baby proved to be quite a challenge.

Obtaining an unobstructed view of the calf was quite a challenge

Obtaining an unobstructed view of the calf was quite a challenge

Protecting the calf

Protecting her calf

A rare unobstructed view

A rare unobstructed view

 

I was fortunate to get a clear shot of the calf on a number of occasions during my time with them.

One of the few unobstructed views of the calf

One of the few unobstructed views of the calf

Let’s hope this little one goes on to live a long life, free from the threat of poachers and human greed.

Trying to copy its mother

Trying to copy its mother

This method of feeding proves easier

This method of feeding proves easier

The mother kept her body between the calf and us - a healthy fear of humans is probably a good idea

The mother kept her body between the calf and us – a healthy fear of humans is probably a good idea if elephants are to survive

It looks like the calf has been told off by its mother

It looks like the calf has been told off by its mother

It walked with all the grace of an inebriated toddler

It walked with all the grace of an inebriated toddler

One day I'll grow into my skin

One day I’ll grow into my skin

 

Wearing mum's tail as a wig

Wearing mum’s tail as a wig

Taking a shortcut under mum

Taking a shortcut under mum

Protected by the herd

Protected by the herd once more

 

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Wild dogs

The African wild dog (a.k.a. painted dog/painted wolf) is one of the most critically endangered mammals, so it is always a thrill to spend time with them. As they can move tens of kilometres a day, finding them is often a matter of luck.

They're always alert

They’re always alert

During our stay at Elephant Plains, in the Sabi Sands Wildtuin, we were fortunate to see a pack of 11 dogs on two occasions.

They're always alert

They’re always alert

Neither time was particularly good from a photographic point of view. One of the drawbacks of us trying to keep costs down is that we end up in lodges that have to keep their costs down too. This is fair enough, I’m not complaining, if I want a more personal experience then I have to pay the operators enough to enable them to provide that service.

To start with we had to look at them through the bushes they were resting under

To start with we had to look at them through the bushes they were resting under

One way to keep costs down is to fill the game vehicles up, they hold a maximum of 10 people plus the driver. Unfortunately, this makes photography more difficult. Even though the guides try their best to ensure that everyone has a good view, there are inevitably times when you are sitting on the opposite side of the vehicle to the action. Our first wild dog sighting was one such time.

They didn't make it easy to take photos of them

They didn’t make it easy to take photos of them

Sleeping in the bushes

Sleeping in the bushes

Initially, none of us had a particularly good view as the dogs were lying under some bushes and it was particularly difficult to get a clear view of them. When we were able to move, it was into a position that suited me. My happiness about this was short lived because the dogs got up and walked to the other side. I ended up shooting through gaps in the bodies of my fellow guests. As they moved around trying to get the best angle, they inevitably moved into my shot just as I pressed the shutter (a close examination at some of the images in this post will reveal blurred parts of bodies in the foreground of the shots).

Shooting between bodies in low light was a challenge

Shooting between bodies in low light was a challenge

In spite of this, and the encroaching darkness, I was able to get some shots that I was happy with.

Spot the underdog

Spot the underdog

Keeping watch

Keeping watch

The next morning we met the pack again. Initially they were milling around, defecating and sniffing each other’s genitals, as dogs do. It wasn’t long, however, before they picked up the scent of something much more interesting, a herd of impalas.

Dogs doing what dogs do

Dogs doing what dogs do

Within seconds, and without any obvious signal, the dogs had spread out and started running in their own unique way. Their long legs mean that they tend to lollop until they are up to full speed.

They are happy to walk around game vehicles

They are happy to walk around game vehicles

Our attempts to follow the pack failed miserably. These canines are capable of speeds of up to 45 miles per hour (70kph) and their was no way to follow them through the bush at that speed.

Seconds after this shot was taken, the dogs were running flat out, in full chase mode

Seconds after this shot was taken, the dogs were running flat out, in full chase mode

Our guide did try to get in front of them though, by speeding along the dirt roads. It was a thrilling ride with cameras and people bouncing in all directions. We arrived at the point where he expected to find the dogs, just in time to see the stragglers saunter by. And that was the last we saw of any of the members of the pack.

A quick glance at us and then this straggler followed the rest of the pack into the bush

A quick glance at us and then this straggler followed the rest of the pack into the bush

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Cheetahs in Cheetah Plains

Cheetahs are Mrs Footprints favourite animal and I had assured her that we were likely to see some during our time at Sabi Sands. Now, eleven game drives into our stay there, we still hadn’t seen any. We’d had fantastic times with lots of different animals but cheetahs had remained elusive. If this didn’t change soon I could be in trouble.

Cheetahs are very vulnerable to attack by larger predatotors, so they are always on the lookout.

Cheetahs are very vulnerable to attack by larger predatotors, so they are always on the lookout.

We were staying in a our third reserve within the Sabi Sands Wildtuin, Cheetah Plains, surely there would be some of the eponymous animals here, not just the sculpture outside the main lodge building.

After days of searching for them one of the brothers walks past us

After days of searching for them one of the brothers walks past us

Some of the other guests had seen some the previous morning so we knew they were around.

Marking his territory

Marking his territory

Finally, on our twelfth drive, we saw them. Two brothers had moved onto Cheetah Plains Pan from the adjacent Kruger National Park.

They are never fully relaxed

They are never fully relaxed

In the end we saw the same pair on five different game drives. On three of those drives they were close enough to photograph, too. All the images in this post were taken on those three drives.

Ready to sleep after a long night

Ready to sleep after a long night

Most of the photos were taken in and around daybreak, which proved to be challenging and very few of the ones of them walking worked but I was able to take a lot of them just lying around.

Our first sight of the brothers

Our first sight of the brothers

Some of these poses and actions will be familiar to cat lovers everywhere.

Cheetahs can look just like domestic cats at times

Cheetahs can look just like domestic cats at times

A quick bath

A quick bath

Washing can take a long time

Washing can take a long time

On the second morning that we saw them I was able to photograph them in the golden light of sunrise that spectacularly emphasised the colours in the cats’ coats.

Showing affection to each other

Showing affection to each other

Mutual cleaning

Mutual cleaning

Mrs F was happy!

A golden coat at sunrise

A golden coat at sunrise

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White rhinos of Sabi Sands

Rhinos may be one of the iconic Big 5* but sightings are becoming harder to come by. My early safari experiences with rhinoceri were in East Africa where the temperamental black rhino still rains supreme, even though, due to poaching, they have suffered a catastrophic decline in numbers.

Rhinos are one of the Big 5 game animals sought after by hunters and photographers alike

Rhinos are one of the Big 5 game animals sought after by hunters and photographers alike

I remember making a special trip in 1985 to Meru National Park to see, what were then, Kenya’s only white rhinos. Even then the northern white rhinoceros was all but extinct. The 5 or 6 rhino that we saw, which had been translocated there from South Africa, were all southern white rhinos – a different subspecies.

Enjoying a good wallow

Enjoying a good wallow

These animals were under guard 24 hours a day. As a result they weren’t afraid of humans. We were allowed to walk with them and pat them as they grazed. They were just like a small herd of cows. Just 3 years later they were all dead. Killed by poachers along with the brave men who guarded them.

On the road to extinction?

On the road to extinction?

I remembered this encounter when we came across five white rhinos on our first game drive in Sabi Sands. Four of them made up the main group and the fifth animal, a male, was grazing a short distance away.

A mother and her calf graze together in Sabi Sands

A mother and her calf graze together in Sabi Sands

This particular group of the pachyderms seemed to be happy to continue feeding around our vehicles. Others that we met merely tolerated our presence and would move away from the vehicles if they had a chance. A healthy fear of humans may help these animals to survive a little longer although, in the end, nothing can protect them from a poacher’s bullet.

Some of the animals preferred to keep their distance from us

Some of the animals preferred to keep their distance from us

The rhinos in Sabi seemed to be much bigger than the ones I remember from Kenya but that may just be my failing memory. Adult males can reach a height of 1.85m (6 feet) and weigh up to 1.7 tonnes. Some of the animals we saw were close to that size. It was awe-inspiring!

The wide lip of a white rhino helps it to graze

The wide lip of a white rhino helps it to graze

All the rhinos that we found in the park were white ones. They came in a variety of colours depending on what they have been rolling in, so the name is a misnomer. The “white” comes from a mis-anglicisation of the Afrikaan’s word “weit” which means wide and describes the difference between the square mouth of the white rhino and the more pointed lip of the black. This adaptation helps the white rhinos to feed as they mainly eat grass, the only rhino to do so. (It’s black cousin uses its more pointed lip when it browses for leaves from bushes.)

The white is the only sub-species of rhino that grazes

The white is the only sub-species of rhino that grazes

The southern white rhinoceros may not look quite as prehistoric as its Asian cousins but they can all trace their ancestry back 5 million years.

They have been around for 5 million years but can they survive the next few?

They have been around for 5 million years but can they survive the next few?

The white is the most populous of the rhino species left on Earth but there was a time, at the end of the 19th Century, when it was thought to have been hunted to extinction. In 1895, however, a small population of fewer than 100 individuals was discovered in Kwazulu-Natal. The 20,000 or so wild white rhinos that exist today are their descendants. Unfortunately, in spite of this conservation success story, the species is under threat once more, due to the current epidemic of poaching.

The white rhino is a conservation success story

The white rhino is a conservation success story

Poaching has been fuelled by an increase in demand from countries like Vietnam, where people use the horn as a status symbol (of their new-found wealth) or believe it has medicinal properties. Only when all humankind realises that rhino horn is no different to their fingernails and that it will not cure cancer or impotency, or whatever miracle use that has been attributed to it, will there be a chance of reducing demand. Let’s hope that realisation happens before it is too late for this iconic species.

Does this calf have a future?

Does this calf have a future?

Many of the facts included in this blog were obtained from the WWF website.

* The Big 5 (African elephant, rhino, Cape buffalo, lion and leopard) were originally the five animals that hunters most wanted to kill on safari. Now, they are often the animals that tourists most want to see.

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Much misunderstood

Hyenas get a bad press. Perhaps it’s because they look like they’ve been designed by a dysfunctional committee. Or maybe it’s their (false) reputation for being cowardly and timid or the (true) fact that they will steal food from cuddly looking big cats. Perhaps it’s their link to witchcraft and other supernatural activity, or their reputation for stealing children and killing livestock. Maybe it’s the way they look, resembling a child’s early attempts at drawing a dog.

Hyenas may look like they've been designed by a disfunctional committee

Hyenas may look like they’ve been designed by a disfunctional committee

It’s about time that Africa’s most populous large predator received some good PR.

Cubs are born with their eyes open

Cubs are born with their eyes open

I first fell in love with the spotted hyena in 1985, while staying in Amboseli National Park in Kenya. We were staying in some cheap bandas within the park, where we talked to our neighbours who were primate researchers. They told us the location of a hyena den in the middle of nowhere.

Hyenas often used disused termite mounds as dens

Hyenas often used disused termite mounds as dens

Following their instructions, we aligned our Isuzu Trooper with a couple of trees and drove out into the middle of a dried up lake-bed. Nothing was visible in front of us and we wondered if we would find the den. Finally we spotted a small hole in the ground, turned our engine off and freewheeled up to it, as instructed, and waited silently.

A juvenile hyena in an entrance of the den

A juvenile hyena in an entrance of the den

After about 10 minutes a nose appeared at the hole, sniffed the air and emerged. It was attached to a juvenile spotted hyena. Soon the whole den emptied out onto the sand. We spent hours watching them play all around us. They only disappeared, briefly, when a van full of noisy tourists came to find out what we were looking at. On seeing nothing they turned away and peace returned and the hyenas reappeared and carried on as before.

Juveniles practice their hunting skills

Juveniles practice their hunting skills

They had an intricate family structure. Given the similarity in age of many of the young hyenas, they were obviously the children of more than one female. The sub-adults looked after the younger cubs and took their turn in keeping them under control.

Sub-adults keep an eye on the younger cubs

Sub-adults keep an eye on the younger cubs

Since then hyenas have been on my wish list every time I go on safari. One of the books that inspired my love of Africa and its wildlife was Cry of the Kalahari by Mark and Delia Owens. Their adventures with brown hyena made me really want to see that animal. Regrettably, to this day, I’ve only ever seen them in the distance.

An adult hyena

An adult hyena

I had to wait more than 30 years before I was able to visit a hyena den again. This time, because there were other people in the vehicle, I could only spend a short time with them. Or, to be exact, two short times with them. On the first occasion, before sunrise one morning, a tiny cub and some juveniles ran around the Land Cruiser. On the second, slightly later in the morning, we arrived at the den in an old termite mound in Sabi Sands, to find a solitary juvenile waiting at one of the entrances for the clan’s adults to return from their night’s hunting.

A juvenile waits for the adults to return

A juvenile waits for the adults to return

We had seen the adults earlier when they had chased a leopard up a tree and spoiled her attempts to hunt some impala. As soon as they returned to the den, the younger ones came out to greet them and play with each other. I challenge anyone to watch interactions like this and still dislike hyenas.

The cub carries a stone out of the den

The cub carries a stone out of the den

Some fact about hyenas

  • They are neither cats nor dogs but, in spite of looking more like a dog, they belong to the same sub-order of carnivores as cats but have their own classification within that group. (The simplified taxonomy is Animalia  Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Feliformia Hyaenidae.)
  • Female hyenas appear to have a penis, which makes it difficult to tell the sexes apart; the external appearance of their genitals is similar to that of the males.
  • Females are larger than the males.
  • Large numbers of hyenas live in clans that are controlled by the females.
Hyenas are inquisitive animals

Hyenas are inquisitive animals

  • In spite of their lolloping walk, hyenas are fast runners and can cover large distances when they are hunting.
  • They can run at up to 60km/h (37mph).
  • Hyenas, in spite of their reputation as scavengers, may kill up to 95% of the animals they eat.
  • Their digestive system allows them to extract nutrients from skin and bones. Only hair, horns and hooves cannot be fully digested and are regurgitated as pellets.
  • They nurse their young for longer than most carnivores, probably because they often hunt and find food far from the den.
A subadult keeps an eye on the younger members of the clan

A subadult keeps an eye on the younger members of the clan

  • It is true that hyenas start eating their prey while it is still alive. They kill an animal by disembowelling it and some people think that this leads to a faster death than the suffocation method used by other predators. I have my doubts but I have never seen a hyena kill, so cannot justify this.
  • A hyena’s hearing is so good that it can hear another predator eating 10km (6 miles) away.
  • The hyena’s “laugh” is a means of communication. In the case of a lion kill that I witnessed, the hyenas may have been calling for reinforcements from the den to help them drive the lions off the kill. The calls certainly didn’t intimidate the lions, if that was their intention.
Hyenas call for reinforcements at a lion kill?

Hyenas call for reinforcements at a lion kill?

Hyenas can extract nutrients from skin and bone

Hyenas can extract nutrients from skin and bone

Every part of the kudu is eaten

Every part of the kudu is eaten

Leopards look good in black and white too

An audience with a leopard

Ever since I saw my first leopard, standing with her two cubs on a sandbar in the middle of a river in Samburu National Park in Kenya, it has been the animal I most want to see on safari. Long ago, I learnt that leopard sightings are on their terms. They are so well camouflaged that they can be invisible, even when they are only metres away, and will only show themselves if they want to be seen.

Quarantine surveys his territory

Quarantine surveys his territory

Sabi Sands in South Africa has a reputation for providing close encounters with this magnificent beast. This was one of the reasons I wanted to visit the reserve.

On guard duty

On guard duty

Right from our first game drive, Sabi didn’t disappoint. I got closer to leopards than I have ever been in my life. Not even in zoos do you get within touching distance.

Checking us out

Checking us out

Nothing, however, had prepared me for my encounter with Quarantine, a 3-year-old male with his own Facebook page. He granted Mrs Footprints and me a one-hour-long audience with him at the end of March.

Such a poser!

Such a poser!

We were on our first game drive with Cheetah Plains guide, Andrew Khosa, when he told us that he was taking us to a sighting of a leopard in a tree. Unfortunately Quarantine had descended from that tree by the time we reached him.

Posing on the road

Posing on the road

We stopped as soon as we saw him, as he was walking slowly towards us. He paused in front of the Land Cruiser to take a good look at us before moving into thick bush. We thought that was it. It was a typical leopard encounter; just long enough to grab a few shots before the cat disappears.

Just checking another leopard hasn't invaded his territory

Just checking another leopard hasn’t invaded his territory

A short time later, Andrew told us that he’d heard that Quarantine had emerged from the bush, so we went to find him again.

A spine-tingling look

A spine-tingling look

He was still walking slowly through his territory when we caught up with him. Clearly, he was looking for another tree to climb. When he found a suitable one he climbed it in a couple of bounds.

Will this one do?

Will this one do?

Andrew was able to position us directly beneath the tree so that we had a clear view and could get good photos.

We stopped directly below him

We stopped directly below him

As we watched, Quarantine surveyed his territory. It was hard to tell whether he was looking for his next meal or just checking that there weren’t any other leopards invading his territory. Either way, he was happy to stay there until after our time with him was up.

Looking for trouble?

Looking for trouble?

I love photographing leopards. I think they are particularly photogenic and work well in black and white too. Quarantine was the perfect model, adopting a range of poses including looking straight into my lens – a spine-tingling moment.

Having a leopard look straight down your lens is electrifying

Having a leopard look straight down your lens is electrifying

Thank you, Quarantine, for allowing us into your presence. It’s an experience I’ll never forget.

Looking for his next meal?

Looking for his next meal?

 

Lord of all he surveys

Lord of all he surveys

 

 

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Worth more alive?

Last Saturday Kenya burned 105 tonnes of ivory and 1.35 tonnes of rhino horn. The ivory came from the tusks of 6700 elephants. If they had stood trunk to tail they would have formed a line 30 miles (50 kilometres) long. Has the Kenyan Government played into the hands of the poachers by pushing up the price of ivory, as some have claimed, or has it made a bold statement about its long-term intentions? The message it wants to send out to the world is that the elephant is #WorthMoreAlive than dead. Has it succeeded?

There can be no doubt about the publicity that the event has generated. It has featured in TV news bulletins around the world and it is all over social media. The burn has been praised by many environmental and conservation organisations but it has also been criticised by some conservationists who believe that a legitimate trade in ivory and rhino horn has an essential part to play, if poaching is to be stopped.

According to the BBC, the ivory burnt in Kenya had a reputed street value of £70 million ($100 million). Wouldn’t it have been better to have sold the ivory and spent the money on preventing poaching, as some have suggested?

The figures

Accurate figures about elephant populations and poaching are hard to find, with some interested groups picking numbers that reinforce their own particular views. Some reckon that around 20,000 African elephants are poached each year while others put the figure at more than 30,000. Either way, this is not a sustainable loss from the (generally agreed) population of between 450,000 and 500,000 elephants currently living wild in the continent.

It is thought that there were around 1.3 million elephants in Africa in 1979 when they were being poached at a rate of 75,000100,000 each year. This was clearly unsustainable and so CITES (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) effectively banned the trade in ivory in 1989 by putting African elephants onto Appendix 1, the list of the most endangered animals and plants.

The number of elephants being poached fell significantly after this. The ban was weakly enforced originally, with governments and officials in many countries complicit in perpetuating the trade. Poaching levels did fall, however, although corruption continues to play a major role in the problem. I haven’t been able to find any figures for the number of elephants killed after the ban was implemented but, given that we are told that the number of elephants killed illegally between 2007 and 2014 doubled, and we know that the number of deaths in the latter year was between 20,000 and 30,000, it would be reasonable to assume that the figure was around 10,000 – 15,000, a fall of 80 – 90%.

The argument for permitting governments to licence the sale of ivory and rhino horn

Supporters of a limited trade argue that increasing the supply of ivory to the market would drive the price down, making it less attractive to criminals, while at the same time raising much needed funds for some of the poorest nations in the World. They suggest, too, that increasing the supply of ivory from legal sources would decrease demand for illegally sourced tusks. In 1999 and 2008 CITES bowed to pressure from certain African countries to lift the ban and permit one-off sales. Immediately after these events, the number of elephants killed by poachers fell, giving credence to the argument that permitting limited sales would reduce the threat from poaching.

The argument against ever permitting these products to be sold

Those opposed to any trade in ivory and rhino horn point out that the argument above, about demand, might be true if the size of the market was constant, but there is a growing middle class in China and the Far East with an apparently insatiable appetite for ivory products, meaning that demand is increasing. There is a body of opinion that believes that increasing the supply of ivory further increases that demand. This is backed up by the fact that, a couple of years after CITES permitted sales of ivory, the number of elephants killed by poachers increased. In fact, after the 2008 sale the numbers doubled. And that figure has been increasing ever since. Also, they point to the fall in the number of elephants being poached after CITES introduced the ban in 1989, saying this is evidence that the ban has saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of elephants, since then.

What happens in practice?

In Africa opinion is divided. East African countries tend to support a total ban, while many southern African countries oppose it. It is worth noting that those countries that oppose a total ban, generate considerable revenues from hunting.

Tourists require a greater financial investment than hunters

Tourists require a greater financial investment than hunters

Kenya, in burning the ivory, has implied that it will oppose any future attempts to permit one-off sales. It had considered, therefore, that its stockpile was worthless and keeping it was an expensive waste of money and resources. (While it existed, the stockpile had to be guarded to prevent it from falling into the wrong hands.)

Some would argue that Kenya can afford to do this because it has a huge tourist industry, worth £1.6 billion ($2.35 billion), about 2.5% of its GDP, in 2014. The industry employs more than half a million people (about 2.5% of Kenya’s adult population). To them the ivory is definitely worth more alive.

Other countries are not so sure that the same argument applies in their cases. Kenya’s tourist industry evolved throughout the 20th Century. Other countries are starting from scratch or restarting after periods of conflict. Tourists these days have high expectations. Mass tourism involves a huge investment in infrastructure and people. Lodges have to be built, water and electricity have to be provided, sewage has to be dealt with, roads need to be maintained, staff have to be trained, and so on.

Many places have discovered, however, that they can improve their profits by providing a smaller number of tourists with a more expensive, exclusive, luxury experience. However, this still costs a lot to set up.

Others have found that they can charge even more money to an even smaller number of people by permitting hunting on their land. They can make a living by having a smaller operation, with simpler and hence cheaper camps. This income is threatened if the killing of certain animals is made illegal or, when such killing is permitted, if foreign hunters are unable to take their trophies home with them because of bans in transporting products from endangered wildlife.

Was Kenya right to burn the ivory and, if so, can other countries do the same?

Many of the people who run hunting operations are opposed to Kenya’s action. They argue that the money they make from rich hunters finances their conservation and breeding programmes. Banning the sales of ivory and rhino horn, they say, would put them out of business and hence increase the chance that elephants will die out in the wild rather than reducing it.

Personally, I think that they’re wrong. I believe that the Kenyan model is the way forward. It takes more effort and more investment but the evidence, that permitting the sales of ivory increases poaching, is so overwhelming that the alternative would inevitably lead to a world without elephants and rhinos. That world would be a poorer place, both financially and in people’s experiences.

The World would be a poorer place if elephants became extinct

The World would be a poorer place if elephants became extinct

Permitting a limited trade in wildlife products produces a smokescreen behind which the illegal trade can flourish. If there is a system whereby legally obtained products are certificated, then those certificates can be made available to the illegal trade too, through corruption, theft or forgery, making it much more difficult to identify the illegal products.

This is why other countries have to take a similar stance to Kenya. Ivory traders need to know that there will never again be any legal sales of these products to help them conceal movements of their own stockpiles.

To be fair to them, other countries have been burning their stockpiles. In March Malawi set fire to 2.6 tonnes of ivory, having initially been prevented from doing so by Tanzania, a country with its own massive poaching problem (it lost two thirds of its elephants in just five years). Last year, Ethiopia, Congo, Mozambique, the US and even China burnt some of their stockpiles too.

Mozambique belatedly recognised that continuing to store confiscated ivory is a high-risk strategy. Last year it very publically announced the confiscation of 1.3 tonnes of ivory and rhino horn (the rhino is extinct in Mozambique so these, almost certainly, had been poached across the border, in South Africa’s Greater Kruger National Park) only to have some of the rhino horns stolen from the police compound less than a fortnight later.

Rhino horn where it should be found - on the end of a rhino's nose

Rhino horn where it should be found – on the end of a rhino’s nose

In the end, however, the only way to stop poaching is to reduce the demand for ivory and rhino horn. Reducing demand, reducing human–elephant conflict and managing the destruction caused by large herds of elephants are beyond the scope of this blog, but they are major issues that can’t be ignored, so I will return to them in the future.